Introduction of Lumashell(Calsium Carbonate) and Zeolite

In the nature there are two most popular accumulation of remains of gastropoda and pellecypoda shells. The first is recent accumulation in seabeach and the second is paleodepodits that formed a kind of sediments called lumashell.

Shell deposits because of it’s chemical properties placed as a calcareous stones. Calcite is the main mineral of calcareous stones and it spread widely in the earth crust with different purity.

Usually there are several percent of other minor minerals that reduce the purity and usage rang in different industry.According to initial exploration the amount of our mine existing deposits approximated more than 1300 million tons.The deposits formed by accumulation of gastropods and pelecypods calcareous shells.Chemical analysis of the samples show high purity of calcium carbonate between 95-98 percent and low amount of harmful elements.Chemical properties of the deposits indicate that it can be used in different industries.The deposits spread in an area with 300 km2 area.

Application of calcareous shell:

This deposits can be used in different branches of industry specially in chemical industries metallurgy, agricultural industries and so on, high degree of purity, individual texture of the sediments and low percentage of impurity and poisonous elements indicate it as a best one. If the method of processing selected correctly.

Zeolite: Zeolite is a naturally occurring mineral that was formed when ash from volcanoes was deposited in alkaline/saline lakes millions of years ago. Over time, the interaction of the volcanic ash with the salts in the lake water altered the ash creating the mineral Zeolite.

Zeolite is an amazing crystalline mineral capable of adsorbing and absorbing many different types of gases, moisture, pretrochemicals, heavy metals, low-level radioactive elements and a multitude of various solution. The channels in the Zeolite provide large surface areas on which chemical reaction can take place. The channels in the Zeolite provide large surface area on which chemical reaction can take place. The cavities and channels within the crystal could occupy up to 50% of its volume. Zeolite can adsorb or absorb large amounts of materials, such as ions or gas molecules. This means that you can use Zeolites to exchange certain ions.

The channels and cavities in the sponge-like  structure are all the same shape and size in a particular type of Zeolite. This means that Zeolite can act as sieves, catching only molecules small enough to fit into the cavities, while excluding larger molecules. This is called “molecular sieving”. The natural Zeolite has many applications in industry.

Applications of Zeolite

Binder: Helps to bind feed to allow palletizing for easier handling of feed. Zeolite is also been known to improve feed conversation in many intensively reared animals and reduce toxic effects of cheap sources of nitrogen (e.g. Urea).

Industrial Scrubber: Can be used in industrial  air purifiers to remove odour and other contaminants in recycled air. Zeolite is a lower cost product to be used in conjunction with activated carbon.

Odour control: Zeolite is extremely effective at quickly absorbing offensive odours such as ammonia. Reduces malodour in animal sheds, resulting in dried more valuable manure.

Grain Drying: Absorbs moisture from grain to help control micro toxins and mold. Also helps control insects by absorbing their body moisture and drying them out.

Carrier: Zeolite acts as a slow releae carrier for pesticides and chemicals therby preventing reagent loss via leaching and deters over fertilizing. It is also effective in keeping moisture at the root zone, releasing the moisture when required.

Anticaking agent: Zeolite mixed in the feed will prevent agglomeration and deep the feed flowing smoothly. Zeolite may also improve feed conversion.

Water Filtration: removes ammonia from agricultural liquid effluents and from treated sewage water, useful in softening water.

Soil amendment:  Improves cation exchange  capacity of sandy soils. Acts as a releaser for cationic nutrients. Reduces need for  nitrogenous fertilizers by reducing bacterial nitrification. Addition to composting organic matter helps retain valuable ammonia.

Concrete:  Lightweight Zeolite  concrete can be cast, is dimensionally accurate and machinable which facilitates reduced construction time and costs. The material can be made with compressive strength ranging from 500-1500 kg/m3 (lightweight). Has excellent thermal and acoustic properties. Has flexibility and good to excellent engineering properties of density, structure, permeability, efflorescence, specific carbonation and frost resistance.

Application:

Aquaculture: Ammonia filtration in fish hatcheries biofilter media.

Agriculture:  Odour control confined animal environmental control livestock feed additives.

Horticulture: Nurseries, Greenhouses, floriculture, Vegtables/Herbs, Foliage, Tree and shrub transplanting,Turf grasssoil amendment, Reclamation, Revegetation, Landscaping, Silviculture (forestry, tree plantations)  Medium  for hydroponics growing.          

Household products: Household odour control, Pet odour control.

Industrial products: Absorbents for oil and spills Gas separation.

Radioactive Waste: Site remediation/decontamination

Water Treatment:   Water Filtration, Heavy metal removal, Swimming pools.

Watewater treatment: Ammonia removal in municipal sludge/wastewater, Heavy metal removal, septic leach fields.  

Production:Sizing and packing available to customer specifications.Packing bags: 30 Kg-50Kg and large bags up to 1 ton.

Specification: Please take a look at below list.

Pricing: Prices vary depending on particle sizing , Packing, Quality control requirements and tonnages. 

For additional information, specific technical question & applications or to place an order, Please contact us.

 

Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.

80 Esna Park Drive, Units 7-9, Markham, Ontario, L3R 2R7, Canada

Tel: +1-905-415-2207; Fax: +1-905-415-3633; website: www.itlinc.com; e-mail: info@itlinc.com

 An ISO-9001:2000 Company 

REPORT ITL-102505-5281 

CALCIUM CARBONATE AND ZEOLITE ANALYSIS 

Submitted to:

Irruca Inc.

57 Nowkirk Rd. Richmond Hill

Ontario, L4C 3G4 

 

This report is the subject of the following terms and conditions:1. This report  relates only to the specimen provided and there is no representation of warranty that it applies to similar substances of material or bulk of which the specimen is  a part. 2. The contents of this report is for the information of the customer identified above only and it shall not be reported or published in whole or in part without the prior written consent of  Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.  3. The name Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. shall not be used in  any connection with the specimen without the prior written consent of  Integrity Testing  Laboratory Inc. 4. Neither Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc. nor any of its employees shall be responsible for any claims, loss or damages arising in consequences of reference to this report or any default, error or omission in its preparation  or the tests conducted. 5. Specimens are retained for 2 month from the date of the test and then disposed of unless instructed otherwise.

Integrity Testing Laboratory Inc.

 

Per:              Y.G.                        _______

        Testing Engineer(s)              Stamp

 

Per:         J. Kleiman                    _______
         Laboratory Manager            Stamp

 

Per:             R. Ng                       _______

         Quality Assurance                Stamp

 

Date: November 18, 2005

 1.0 INTRODUCTION 

This report presents the results of an analysis conducted by ITL on request of Irruca Inc. Two samples were delivered         to ITL and a request was made to analyze their chemical content.

 1.1  Samples Specification: 

The supplied specimens were identified as follows:

1.      Calcium Carbonate

2.      Zeolite

 1.2 Methods Used:

Inductively Coupled Plasma – Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique according to ASTM E1019, E1097 (modified) and E1479 was used for the chemical analysis.  

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) was used to analyse the chemical content of not digestible components. The EDS microanalysis system is capable of evaluating the elemental composition of the samples and to analyse the results through semi-quantitative, standardless evaluation of the spectra. The system is using a very thin polymer-based membrane that allows to detect all elements from carbon and higher.

 2.0   RESULTS 

The results of ICP-AES analysis are presented in Table I and II. Table I, as well, include the percent of not digestible by aqua regia fraction in the sample “Calcium Carbonate”. The not digestible fraction of “Calcium Carbonate” sample was analysed by EDS and may belong to aluminosilicate mineral, in a particular to orthoclase (KAlSi3O8). 

                 Table I.  Chemical Test Results of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)                               

 

No

 

Element

Element concentration

Equivalent to chemical compound

%, wt

ppm

Chemical compound

Concentration  %, wt

1

Ag (Silver)

ND

 

 

 

2

Al (Aluminum)*

1.0

10000

 

 

3

As (Arsenic)

ND

 

 

 

4

B (Boron)

ND

 

 

 

5

Ba (Barium)

0.01

100

 

 

6

Be (Berylium)

ND

 

 

 

7

Ca (Calcium)

28.0

280000

CaO

39.2

CaCO3

70.0

8

Cd (Cadmium)

ND

 

 

 

9

Co (Cobalt)

ND

 

 

 

10

Cr (Chromium)

ND

 

 

 

11

Cu (Copper)

ND

 

 

 

12

Fe (Iron)

0.16

1600

Fe2O3

0.22

13

K (Potassium)*

0.67

6700

 

 

14

Mg (Magnesium)

0.17

1700

MgO

0.28

15

Mn (Manganese)

ND

 

 

 

16

Mo (Molybdenum)

ND

 

 

 

17

Na (Sodium)

0.58

5800

 

 

18

Ni (Nickel)

ND

 

 

 

19

P (Phosphorus)

ND

 

 

 

20

Pb (Lead)

ND

 

 

 

21

Sb (Antimony)

ND

 

 

 

22

Se (Selenium)

ND

 

 

 

23

Si (Silicon)*

0.04

400

 

 

24

Sr (Strontium)

0.11

1100

 

 

25

V (Vanadium)

ND

 

 

 

26

Zn (Zinc)

ND

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not digestible fraction

25.0

 

KAlSi3O8  **

25.0

 ND – Not Detectable, less then the method detection limit.

* Digestible in this method.

** EDS analysis. 

                 Table II.  Chemical Test Results of Zeolite                               

 

No

 

Element

Element concentration

Equivalent to chemical compound

%, wt

ppm

Chemical compound

Concentration  %, wt

1

Ag (Silver)

ND

 

 

 

2

Al (Aluminum)

5.02

50200

Al2O3

9.5

3

As (Arsenic)

ND

 

 

 

4

B (Boron)

0.0009

9

 

 

5

Ba (Barium)

0.064

640

 

 

6

Be (Berylium)

ND

 

 

 

7

Ca (Calcium)

1.45

14500

CaO

5.07

8

Cd (Cadmium)

ND

 

 

 

9

Co (Cobalt)

ND

 

 

 

10

Cr (Chromium)

ND

 

 

 

11

Cu (Copper)

ND

 

 

 

12

Fe (Iron)

0.98

9800

Fe2O3

1.4

13

K (Potassium)

3.35

33500

K2O

4.04

14

Mg (Magnesium)

0.42

4200

 

 

15

Mn (Manganese)

0.028

280

 

 

16

Mo (Molybdenum)

ND

 

 

 

17

Na (Sodium)

2.05

20500

Na2O

2.76

18

Ni (Nickel)

ND

 

 

 

19

P (Phosphorus)

ND

 

 

 

20

Pb (Lead)

ND

 

 

 

21

Sb (Antimony)

ND

 

 

 

22

Se (Selenium)

ND

 

 

 

23

Si (Silicon)

32

320000

 

68.5

24

Sr (Strontium)

0.033

330

 

 

25

V (Vanadium)

0.006

60

 

 

26

Zn (Zinc)

0.0036

36

 

 

 ND – Not Detectable, less then the method detection limit.

 

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Nature, Origin, and Uses of Limestone.

The name "limestone" implies stone from which lime is made. Strictly speaking, therefore, it should apply on to the carbonate of calcium, which, by ignition, is converted into lime. In practice, however, the name covers quite a variety of materials which contain carbonate of calcium, but in very different degrees. When limestone presents itself in crystalline conditions, so as to be susceptible of fine polish and delicate ornamentation, it is known as marble. Marble is specially treated in an earlier portion of this report, inasmuch as its beauty of texture and find crystalline condition make it applicable to uses for which the noncrystalline variety of limestone can not serve.

Calcium carbonate is frequently associated with magnesium carbonate in varying proportions. When the proportion of the latter is small the stone is called magnesim limestone, but when the proportion becomes 54.35 parts of calcium carbonate to 45.65 parts of magnesium carbonate it receives the name of "dolomite," which, if crystalline, may constitute a marble, but if noncrystalline is classed with the ordinary limestones. The term "ordinary limestone" is commonly used to include all the grades and degrees of limestone except marble, and it is of "ordinary limestone" with this meaning that this report treats.

The limestones are mainly, though probably not entirely, of organic origin, resulting from the deposition and aggregation of shells, corals, etc.; but at the time of deposition other materials, such as clay, sand, iron oxides, iron pyrites, mica, etc., may have been included, thus producing a large number of grades, which are frequently distinguished by names which imply the presence of the most characteristic impurity. Siliceous, argillaceous, and micaceous limestones are names in common use. Usually the presence of these impurities is an objection to the stone for almost all the great variety of uses to which limestone is applied.

The detailed uses to which ordinary limestone is put are numerous, and some of them are of vast importance, because they can not be met by any other kind of stone. Some of the uses to which limestone is put bring it into competition with the granites and sandstone, such as building of all kinds, road making, and structural purposes generally. In its application to lime burning and blast-furnace flux, limestone stands alone, and, as will be seen from the table of production, large quantities are devoted to these purposes.

How is limestone processed?

At Omya's plant near Te Kuiti a high purity limestone is processed through crushing and milling circuits to produce a range of finely milled limestone powder (whiting) for use by New Zealand industries.

A major use of this high purity limestone powder is as a filler in paper and fibreboard. In addition it is a vital ingredient in the production of paint, plastics, rubber inks, adhesives, glass, putty, and ceramics. 

 How is limestone treated?……

Burnt Lime (calcium oxide CaO) is manufactured by calcining high quality limestone at very high temperatures. nearly    half the limestone's weight is volatilized off as carbon dioxide to produce calcium oxide or burnt lime. This product is commonly known as quicklime, roach lime, or unslaked lime.

Hydrated Lime (calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2) is a derivative of burnt lime. It is treated with water in continuous hydrators then dried. The micron-sized particles are then classified by air separators. The final product appears as a fine white powder. Hydrated lime is also known as slaked lime, and is the most widely used alkali in the world.

Agricultural Lime (calcium carbonate CaCO3) is commonly known as lime and ground limestone. It is produced by  grinding limestone to less than 2mm.

Limestone Chip is calcium carbonate that has been crushed and screened. It is used for decorative driveways, in steel manufacturing, and in coal desulphurisation.

          What is lime used for?……

Lime is one of man's oldest materials and is also known as the world's most versatile chemical. Lime was used in the building of Egyptim pyramids and by the Chinese as far back as 3000BC for the stabilisation of clay soils. The ancient Romans used lime to reduce the need for vast quantities of expensive foundation metal. The Romans knew that lime would react with volcanic ash to produce a type of concrete - still seen today on the Appim Way.

Thousands of years later and on the other side of the world lime is still used on roads. Burnt Lime and Hydrated Lime     are  used  to  stabilise  roads, airport  runways,  irrigation  canals, earth  dams  and  building  foundations. The  lime  agglomerates clay particles  into  coarser  particles  through  base ion exchange as well as producing a cementing or hardening action.    The reaction products are permanent, producing a durable stabilising layer. Benefits of lime use in road construction include: improved structural quality, greater load bearing capacity, reduced maintenance costs and extended life.

In New Zealand large quantities of lime are consumed in steel making where it serves as a flux for removing impurities such as silica, phosphorous and sulphur. In the construction industry lime fulfills a crucial role as a soil stabiliser for roads, airfields, building foundations and earth dams. Lime is used to chemically treat and strengthen clay soils to form satisfactory base and subbase material. Many New Zealand buildings from last century are constructed from limestone   or use it for door and window surrounds.

In paper making lime is used as a causticizing agent and for bleaching.

In non-ferrous metallurgy lime is used to beneficiate copper ore, make alumina and magnesia for use in aluminium and magnesium manufacture, extract uranium and recover gold, silver and other precious metals.

The chemical industry requires lime to make such chemical as sodium alkalies, calcium carbide, calcium hypochlorite, citric acids and petro-chemicals.

The traditional use of lime in mortar and plaster for construction is still important. Limestone is the primary ingedient of cement, and so is vital in the construction and roading industires. In addition lime is used in refractories, sugar refining, glass making, leather tanning. plastics, and pigments.

Being non-toxic, lime is also vitally important as an environmental clean-up chemical. Lime is used to: clarify and soften drinking water; treat sewage in waste water by removing phosphorous and nitrogen, assisting clarification and killing bacteria; neutralise acid mine and industrial wastewater discharges; absorb and neutralise sulphur oxides and industrial chimney gases and to stabilise solid wastes for safe land disposal.

Lime also has a vital role to play in New Zealand's farming industry as an agricultural fertiliser, fungicide and insecticide.. Agricultural lime has a range of uses and benefits, it: neutralises soil acidity, is a direct source of plant nutrients, increases the supply of other nutrients, increases organic matter, increases soil micro organisms, improves soil tilth, provides a source of trace elements, and increases the efficiency of fertilizers.

 

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